- Which elements can break the octet rule?
- Why do valence electrons have the most energy?
- Who discovered the electron?
- How many rings does oxygen have?
- What happens when an atom has a full outer shell?
- Why do all atoms want to obtain 8 valence electrons?
- How do atoms become happy?
- How can you tell how many shells an atom has?
- Do atoms want to fill their outer shell?
- Why is the octet rule important?
- Why do atoms want to be stable?
- Which type of bond is the weakest?
- What are exceptions to the octet rule?
- Why does the octet rule exist?
Which elements can break the octet rule?
There are three violations to the octet rule: odd-electron molecules, electron-deficient molecules, and expanded valence shell molecules..
Why do valence electrons have the most energy?
As you go farther from the nucleus, electrons at higher energy levels have more energy. … The maximum number of electrons at a given energy level depends on its number of orbitals. There are at most two electrons per orbital. Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom are called valence electrons.
Who discovered the electron?
ThomsonDuring the 1880s and ’90s scientists searched cathode rays for the carrier of the electrical properties in matter. Their work culminated in the discovery by English physicist J.J. Thomson of the electron in 1897.
How many rings does oxygen have?
So… for the element of OXYGEN, you already know that the atomic number tells you the number of electrons. That means there are 8 electrons in an oxygen atom. Looking at the picture, you can see there are two electrons in shell one and six in shell two. ► More about the history and places to find oxygen.
What happens when an atom has a full outer shell?
If the outer shell is filled, the atom is stable. Atoms with unfilled outer shells are unstable, and will usually form chemical bonds with other atoms to achieve stability. Example of an unstable atom with a single electron in its outer-most shell. … In ionic bonds, atoms donate or receive electrons to achieve stability.
Why do all atoms want to obtain 8 valence electrons?
A complete octet is very stable because all orbitals will be full. Atoms with greater stability have less energy, so a reaction that increases the stability of the atoms will release energy in the form of heat or light. A stable arrangement is attended when the atom is surrounded by eight electrons.
How do atoms become happy?
Two happy atoms! When an atom gives up an electron, it becomes positive like the sodium ion (Na+). When an atom gets an extra electron, it becomes negatively charged like the fluorine ion (F-). The positive and negative charges continue to attract each other like magnets.
How can you tell how many shells an atom has?
Each shell can contain only a fixed number of electrons: The first shell can hold up to two electrons, the second shell can hold up to eight (2 + 6) electrons, the third shell can hold up to 18 (2 + 6 + 10) and so on. The general formula is that the nth shell can in principle hold up to 2(n2) electrons.
Do atoms want to fill their outer shell?
Atoms want a full outer shell because it completes all the gaps in the outside. With no gaps, other electrons don’t want to fit into those spaces. For example, a noble gas like Neon has a full outer shell. It doesn’t react with other chemicals because the electrons from other chemicals can’t fall in anywhere.
Why is the octet rule important?
The octet rule is important because it predicts how atoms will bond based on their outer shell of valance electrons.
Why do atoms want to be stable?
An atom is stable because of a balanced nucleus that does not contain surplus energy. If the forces between the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus are unbalanced, then the atom is unstable. Stable atoms retain their form for ever, while unstable atoms undergo radioactive decay.
Which type of bond is the weakest?
ionic bondThe ionic bond is generally the weakest of the true chemical bonds that bind atoms to atoms.
What are exceptions to the octet rule?
However, there are three general exceptions to the octet rule: Molecules, such as NO, with an odd number of electrons; Molecules in which one or more atoms possess more than eight electrons, such as SF6; and. Molecules such as BCl3, in which one or more atoms possess less than eight electrons.
Why does the octet rule exist?
The octet rule exists because the atoms of many elements become more stable by attaining a noble gas electron configuration. Most noble gases have eight valence electrons (He has only 2) which gives them a full outer shell of electrons in the s and p sublevels of their highest energy level.